I will dump any formulas/explanations for statistics I use in my basketball articles in here and link to it at the bottom of my articles. If there are any missing, or anything is unclear, let me know in the most recent article I've written and I will try to explain it better. You will find the statistic and its equation, with the definition underneath in italics.
Estimates number of possessions a team has in a game/season; Substitute Opponents' totals to get their number of possessions (OppPoss)
Adjusts a team's scoring offense and defense for their pace of play, allows you to better compare a team like Wisconsin to a team like Duke
Adjusts a player's or team's FG% for the fact that a 3 pointer is worth 1.5 times a standard FG
Adjusts standard FG% to include their FT%, encompasses all ways to score (my preferred shooting % stat)
A measure of both how often a player/team gets to the line, as well as how often they make their free throws
Measures the percentage of the available rebounds a player grabs at the offensive and defensive ends of the floor while he is in the game. TRB% measures the total rebounds he grabs of those available while he is in the game.
Think of Carmelo Anthony for this statistic, it is a "ball stopper" stat. This divides the number of assists a player has by the number of offensive possessions that end in that player's hands.
The percentage of teammate baskets a player assisted on while he was on the court - my preferred Assists statistic
Adjusts pAST% to account for pace of play; penalizes player for teammate mistakes (TOV, missed FGA)
Percent of opponent possessions in which a player gets a steal
Percent of opponents' "blockable" shots that the player blocks (removes 3 point shots, as these are generally not "blockable", somewhat arbitrary since you see these blocked and a mid range jump shot is just as unlikely to be blocked, yet is included in the sample)
Percent of a player's possessions that ends in turnovers, essentially the same as the hAST% equation, but for turnovers rather than assists